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英语定语从句课件趣味

科学学习网 2021-04-01 课件

英语定语从句课件趣味

  英语定语从句课件(一)

  Ⅰ. 定义

  定语从句,起形容词的作用,在句中常用来修饰名词或代词。被修饰的词称为先行词,引导定语从句的词称为关系词, 关系词的作用一是放在先行词与定语从句中间起引导作用;二是在意义上代替先行词,并在从句中充当一个成分。其中关系代词:who, whom, whose, which, that, as;关系副词:when, where, why。

  eg.  She is the girl who sings best of all.

  The pen which my uncle gave me is missing.

  He lives in a house whose windows face south.

  The factory where my father works is in the east of the city.

  Perhaps the day will come when people will be able to breathe clean air in cities.

  Ⅱ. 关系代词

  1. 先行词是人,作主语,关系代词用who, that

  eg. He is a man(      ) never leaves today’s work till tomorrow.

  The boy (      ) is standing there is my cousin.

  2. 先行词是人,作宾语,关系代词用 whom, who, that,

  eg.  Here is the man (           ) you’ve been expecting to meet.

  The man (        ) you met yesterday is Mr. Smith.

  3. 先行词是物,作主语,关系代词用which, that

  eg .  The train (      ) has  just  left  is  for  Guangzhou.

  Children like to read books (       ) have wonderful pictures.

  4. 先行词是物,作宾语,关系代词用which, that,或省略

  eg.  The book (       ) you borrowed yesterday is really interesting.

  The pen (        ) my uncle gave me is missing.

  5. 先行词是人、物,作定语,关系代词用whose

  eg.  He is the professor (       ) name was Jackson.

  China, (     ) population is the largest in the world, is developing very fast.

  Ⅲ. 关系副词

  1. 先行词是表示时间的名词,在定从中作时间状语,关系代词用when

  eg.  I can’t remember the date (      ) he went abroad.

  I’ll never forget the day (      ) I joined the army.

  2. 先行词是表示地点的名词,在定从中作地点状语,关系代词用where; 其中注意表示抽象概念的地点名词,如,situation、stage、degree、point等表示方面或程度时,也需用where

  eg.  This is the village (     ) Uncle Wang once lived.

  They have reached the point (      ) they have to separate with each other.

  He’s got himself into a dangerous situation (       ) he is likely to lose control over the plane.

  3. 先行词是reason,在定从中作原因状语,关系代词用why

  eg.  I don’t know the reason (     ) he was late.

  None of us know the reason (        ) Tom was absent from the meeting.

  4.引导定语从句的关系副词也可以用“适当介词 + which”来代替。

  eg.  October 1, 1949 was the day when ( =      ) the People’s Republic of China was founded.

  This is the factory where(=         ) we worked a year ago.

  I don’t believe the reason why (=        ) he was late for school.

  Ⅳ. 关系代词that & which的区别:

  ⒈ 只用that的情况

  ① 先行词为all, everything, anything, nothing, little, much等不定代词时。

  eg.  There is nothing (      ) can prevent him from doing it.

  ② 先行词被any, only, few, no, very, little 等修饰时。

  eg.  This is the very book (      ) I’m looking for.

  ③ 先行词被形容词最高级或序数词修饰时。

  eg.  The first place (    ) they visited in Guilin was Elephant Trunk Hill.

  This is the best film (     ) I have ever seen.

  ④ 先行词既有人又有物时。

  eg.  He talked about things and persons (     ) they remembered in the school.

  ⑤ 先行词被the only, the very修饰时。

  eg.  Mr. Smith is the only foreigner (      ) he knows.

  ⑥ 句中已有who或which,为了避免重复时。

  eg.  Who is the man (     ) is standing beside Tom?

  ⒉ 不能用 that的情况:

  ① 引导非限制性定语从句;

  eg.  He had failed in the maths exam , (    ) made his father very angry.

  ② 介词 + 关系代词。

  eg.  This is the room in(     ) my father lived last year.

  Ⅴ. as引导定语从句时的'用法(as 相当于that & which)

  ① as引导限制性定语从句通常用于the same … as, such … as结构中。

  eg.  This is the same book (     ) I lent you.

  Such machines (     ) are used in our workshop are made in China.

  ② as引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,位置灵活,用来修饰整个句子。通常用下列句型:as is known to all, as is said, as is reported, as is announced, as we all know, as I expect 等。

  eg.  (     ) I expected, he got the first place again in this mid-term examination.

  Taiwan, (      ) we all know, belongs to China.

  Ⅵ. 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句的主要区别:

  限制性定语从句: 一般紧跟在先行词后面,不用逗号把从句与先行词分隔开来。使先行词的意思十分明确,成为特定的人或物,是句子中不可缺少的成分,少了它句子就会失去意义不能成立,或意思不清楚,不能说明问题。通常译为定语。

  非限制性定语从句: 通常由逗号与句子其他成分隔开。只是对先行词作进一步的说明,没有它句子仍能成立,意思仍很清楚。通常译为并列的句子。

  eg.  I was the only person in our office (    ) was invited.(去掉定语从句,意思就不完整)

  Tom’s father, (    ) is over sixty, still works hard day and night.(整个句子可分成两句来翻译)

  Ⅶ. 分隔定语从句

  即先行词与关系代词、副词之间被介词短语,同位语,谓语等分隔开来。

  此种定语从句,在选择关系词时,要注意找准先行词。

  eg.  There is an expression in his eyes (     )I can’t understand.

  I was the only person in my office (     ) was invited to the important ball.

  I suggest you choose someone I think (      ) is very kind and friendly.

  选择填空:

  1. It was April 29,2011     Prince William and Kate Middleton walked into the palace hall of the wedding ceremony.

  A. that    B. when    C. since    D. before

  2.)Gutter oil is illegally recycled cooking oil,    contains chemicals that are harmful to the human body and can even cause cancer.

  A. it     B. which     C. where    D. that

  3. Between the two parts of the concert is an interval,    the audience can buy ice-cream.

  A. when      B. where   C. that    D. which

  4. The old town has narrow streets and small houses     are built close to each other.

  A. they    B. where   C. what    D. that

  5. Whatever is left over may be put into the refrigerator,    it will keep for two or three weeks.

  A. when    B. which   C. where    D. while

  6. English is a language shared by several diverse cultures, each of     ------- uses it somewhat differently.

  A. which    B. what   C. them    D. those

  7. A bank is the place     they lend you an umbrella in fair weather and ask for it back when it begins to rain.

  A. when      B. that   C. where      D. there

  8. She has a gift for creating an atmosphere for her students     ------ allows them to communicate freely with each other.

  A. which        B. where    C. what     D. who

  9 Ted came for the weekend wearing only some shorts and a T-shirt,    ------ is a stupid thing to do in such weather.

  A. this      B. that    C. what     D. which

  10. She showed the visitors around the museum, the construction ------    had taken more than three years.

  A. for which    B. with which   C. of which    D. to which

  11. The school shop,    customers are mainly students, is closed for the holidays.

  A. which    B. whose   C. when   D. where

  12.He was so pleased with all     we had done for him     he wrote us a letter to praise for it.

  A. what; what  B. what; that   C. that; what   D. that; that

  13.The moon travels round the earth once every month,    is known to everybody.

  A. it        B. as   C. that   D. what

  14.    is often the case with elder people, my grandma, talked about my new hairstyle for at least 50 minutes nonstop.

  A. That      B. Which         C. As        D. It

  15.After graduating from high school, you will reach a point in your life     ------- you need to decide what to do.

  A. that      B. what    C. which     D. where

  16.The novel was completed in 1978,    the economic system has seen great changes.

  A. when      B. during which   C. since then D. since when

  17.Books bring us into the presence of the greatest minds     have ever lived.

  A. which  B. who    C.不填     D. that

  18.The world     is made up of matter.

  A. in that we live     B. on which we live

  C. where we live in    D. we live in

  19.David is such a good boy     all the teachers like.

  A. that      B. who    C. as    D. whom

  20.Is this the reason     at the meeting for his carelessness in his work?

  A. he explained     B. what he explained

  C. how he explained  D. why he explained

  21.He was very angry and I can still remember the way     he spoke to me.

  A. how       B. that    C. what   D. which

  22.That’s the new machine     parts are too small to be seen.

  A. that      B. which    C. whose  D. what

  23.I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school     ------- I met in the English speech contest last year.

  A. who       B. where    C. when   D. which

  英语定语从句课件(二)

  一、定义及相关术语

  1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先行词之后。

  2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。

  3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。

  关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有that, which, who, whom, whose, as等;关系副词有when, where, why等。

  关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。例如:

  The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman.

  该句中,who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词the man, “who”是引导定语从句的关系词,代替先行词the man,在定语从句中作主语。

  二、定语从句的种类以及区别

  定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句,现将它们之间的用法及区别列表如下

  限制性定语从句

  非限制性定语从句

  和先行词的关系密切(删去后,影响整个句子意义的表达)

  和先行词的关系不密切(是一种补充说明,删去后不影响整个句子意义的表达)

  不用逗号分开

  一般使用逗号分开

  可用关系代词that引导

  不可用关系代词that引导

  可以省略(that,who,which在从句中担当宾语时可以省略)

  不可以省略

  可以替代(whom作宾语时,可用who或that替代)

  不能替代

  只可以修饰先行词,不可以修饰主句或主句的一部分

  修饰整个主句或主句的一部分,此时定语从句前有逗号分开,只能用which或as引导。

  请看下面例句的不同含义:

  限制性:她有两个当解放军的儿子。

  She has two sons who are P.L.A.men.

  (Maybe she has other sons who are not P.L.A.men.)

  非限制性:她有两个儿子,他们都是解放军。

  She has two sons,who are P.L.A.men.

  (She has only two sons.They are both P.L.A.men.)

  三、关系代词的用法区分

  1.修饰物体时关系代词that和 which的区分

  ?只能使用that的情况:

  (1)当先行词即有人又有物时。

  eg. I won’t forget the things and the persons that I saw.

  (2)当先行词被形容词最高级、序数词所修饰时。

  eg. This is the first book that I bought myself.

  The biggest bird that I caught is this bi...